Private vs Public Blockchain: The Key Differences

Private vs Public Blockchain: The Key Differences

11 min read

Around the globe, there’s a growing buzz about how blockchain technology is revolutionising various industries. This isn’t just talk; the transparency and real-time data on transactions that blockchain offers are genuinely game-changing. It eliminates the need for middlemen and makes data reconciliation a thing of the past.

The numbers speak for themselves – spending on blockchain solutions will continue to grow in the coming years, reaching almost 19 billion U.S. dollars by 2024, according to Statista. This might be another way to say that ignoring blockchain could be costly in this digital age.

When it comes to blockchain networks, there are two popular types: public and private blockchains. Both types offer unique ways for individuals and businesses to capitalise on the benefits of blockchain. In this article, we’ll dive into the key distinctions between private vs public blockchains, explore their various applications, and help you understand how each can align with your strategic objectives.

Further reading – Blockchain Layers Explained: Layers 0, 1, and 2


Permissioned and Permissionless Blockchains


In blockchain, you’ll generally encounter two main types: permissionless and permissioned blockchains. You already know of Bitcoin, Ethereum, or BNB Chain, which means you’re already acquainted with permissionless blockchains. These are the open playgrounds of the blockchain world, where anyone can join, validate transactions, and participate in network activities.

On the flip side, we have permissioned blockchains. These are used in private settings. Businesses and organisations often use them for specific tasks like supply chain management. You’ll need a special invite, usually from a network administrator or central authority, to get in.

A permissionless blockchain is public, while a permissioned blockchain is private.


What is a Public Blockchain?

public blockchain


A public blockchain is an open book anyone can read and write in. It’s a decentralised network, meaning no central authority oversees it. This type of blockchain is permissionless, allowing anyone to join the network, make transactions, and even participate in the process of verifying those transactions.

The beauty of public blockchains lies in their transparency and decentralisation. They’re designed to be censorship-resistant, ensuring no single entity can control or manipulate the data. Transactions are verified through consensus mechanisms like proof of work or proof of stake, adding an extra layer of security and integrity to the network.

However, it’s not all sunshine and rainbows. Public blockchains do have their challenges, particularly when it comes to scalability and privacy. The more transactions there are, the slower the network can become. Plus, the transparency might not be ideal for storing sensitive information like financial data or medical records. And let’s not forget the energy consumption; these networks can be quite power-hungry, raising environmental concerns.


Features of Public Blockchains

Robust Security

One of the standout features of public blockchains is their high level of security. Public blockchains offer a secure haven in a world where cyber threats are a daily concern, costing businesses billions annually. Their cryptographic protocols are designed to thwart hacking attempts, ensuring data integrity and value for any project.


Open Accessibility

The “public” in public blockchain means that it’s open to everyone. You only need a stable internet connection and a computer to join the network. This universal access allows you to enjoy the full spectrum of blockchain benefits, from secure transactions to potential earnings through mining, although not all platforms offer mining capabilities.



Public blockchains offer a layer of anonymity that many users find appealing. While you interact with the network, your real identity remains concealed, providing a level of privacy. However, this feature has been misused for illicit activities, but it’s crucial to remember that the technology itself is neutral; its usage determines its ethical standing.


Lack of Regulation

Public blockchains operate in a regulation-free zone, allowing users to use the platform as they see fit. While this lack of oversight can be liberating, it also poses challenges for enterprises that require a regulated environment for compliance reasons. Therefore, public blockchains are best suited for consumer platforms rather than internal corporate networks.


Pros and Cons of Using Public Blockchains


Secure Authentication

A public blockchain network uses public key cryptography to authenticate users, ensuring secure communication over an otherwise insecure channel.


Immutable Audit Trail

Once data is recorded on the blockchain, it becomes unchangeable. This provides a timestamped audit trail for all transactions, enhancing transparency and accountability.


Resilience Against Bad Actors

The decentralised nature of public blockchains, with numerous nodes, makes it challenging for malicious entities to compromise the network. Honest nodes quickly reject any fraudulent transactions.



Limited Editability

If you need to modify an entry, you can’t edit it directly. Instead, you have to add a new transaction detailing the changes, which can be cumbersome.


Risk of Losing Access

If you lose your private key, you lose access to your data on the blockchain. There’s no “Forgot Password?” option.


Irreversible Entries

Once you post an entry, it’s there for good. This immutability can be a double-edged sword, especially if you make an error.


Why Use a Public Blockchain?

Decentralised Nature

Public blockchains are the epitome of decentralisation. Unlike their private counterparts, they don’t have a central authority calling the shots. Instead, nodes—computers on the network—share the responsibility of updating the ledger. A consensus algorithm ensures that everyone plays fairly, making the network decentralised.



Transparency isn’t just a buzzword in public blockchains; it’s the core of their design. You can peek into the ledger anytime you want, and there’s zero room for foul play. Everyone contributes to maintaining the ledger, making it a collective effort that leaves no space for corruption.



Once a block is added to the chain, consider it etched in stone. This immutability safeguards against any sneaky alterations. Hash functions serve as the guardians of this feature, making it nearly impossible for anyone to tamper with existing blocks without creating a whole new chain.


User Empowerment at Its Best

Public blockchains are the ultimate playground for those who value freedom and autonomy. There’s no central authority to impose rules or restrictions. You can join the network, participate in consensus, and even initiate transactions. It’s a level of empowerment you won’t find in private blockchains.


What is a Private Blockchain?

private blockchain bitcoin

In a private blockchain, access is by invitation only. Unlike its public counterpart, where anyone can join, a private blockchain requires authorisation for participation. Each approved member operates a node that verifies and records transactions on the digital ledger. This restricted access ensures higher privacy, as the data and transactions are not publicly disclosed.

One of the standout features of private blockchains is their adaptability in consensus mechanisms. This flexibility allows them to overcome some of the challenges that public blockchains face, such as scalability and sustainability. Customisable consensus mechanisms make private blockchains ideal for specific use cases, unlike the one-size-fits-all approach of public blockchains.

When it comes to performance, private blockchains have the edge. Their controlled environment, limited to a select number of vetted individuals and high-quality nodes, results in faster transaction processing and better scalability. These advantages make private blockchains particularly appealing for businesses requiring privacy and efficiency.

However, it’s worth noting that private blockchains have drawbacks. Their centralised nature puts a lot of power in the hands of the managing organisation, requiring a high level of trust. This centralisation also limits the ability for third-party verification, which could be a concern for some users.


Features of Private Blockchains

Streamlined Efficiency

Private blockchains are designed for speed and resource optimisation. Unlike public blockchains, which can become bogged down with numerous participants, private blockchains limit access to a select group.

This ensures that resources are used efficiently, preventing slowdowns. Eco-friendly consensus protocols further enhance this efficiency, making private blockchains a go-to for businesses that need fast, reliable transaction processing.


Unparalleled Privacy

When it comes to safeguarding sensitive information, private blockchains are the gold standard. They offer an environment where data privacy is paramount, making them ideal for enterprises that handle confidential information.

The restricted access ensures that only authorised individuals can view or interact with the blockchain, providing an extra layer of security against data leaks or unauthorised access.



Private blockchains are tailored to meet the needs of businesses, focusing on enterprise-level solutions rather than individual use cases. They are particularly well-suited for internal systems, offering robust security and efficiency features that can significantly enhance business processes.

By focusing on the needs of the enterprise as a whole, private blockchains provide a technological backbone that can drive business innovation and growth.


Consistent Costs and Stability

One of the standout features of private blockchains is their stability in terms of transaction speed and associated fees. Unlike public blockchains, where transaction fees can fluctuate due to high demand, private blockchains offer a stable, predictable cost structure.

This is possible because the limited number of participants reduces the likelihood of transaction backlogs, ensuring a smooth and consistent user experience.


Pros and Cons of Using Private Blockchains



With fewer nodes to manage, private blockchains can easily adapt to the specific needs of an organisation, ensuring that the system can grow along with the business.


High Throughput

The smaller network size allows quicker transaction processing, making it ideal for businesses requiring real-time data updates.



Since the organisation owns the blockchain, there are no additional costs for adding blocks to the chain. This can result in long-term cost savings.




A centralised server is required to authenticate and validate users, which can create a single point of failure and potentially compromise the decentralised nature of blockchain technology.


Maintenance and Security

Running a private blockchain comes with its own set of challenges, including the need for ongoing maintenance and robust security measures, adding to operational costs.


Infrastructure Investment

Setting up a private blockchain requires a substantial upfront investment in hardware and technology, which may not be feasible for all organisations.


Why Use a Private Blockchain?

Affordable Transactions

One of the standout features of private blockchains is the low transaction fees. Private blockchains offer stable and predictable costs unlike their public counterparts, where fees can fluctuate based on demand.


Cost-Effective in the Long Run

Maintaining a private blockchain is generally less resource-intensive than a public one. This efficiency translates to cost savings over time, making it a financially smart choice for businesses.


Enhanced Security

Private blockchains require user authentication, effectively screening out unauthorised access. This added layer of security minimises the risk of illegal activities, making it a safer option for enterprises.


Regulatory Compliance

In a business setting, adhering to industry regulations is non-negotiable. Private blockchains can be customised to enforce these rules, ensuring that all transactions are compliant with legal requirements.


Control and Customisation

With a private blockchain, you’re in the driver’s seat. You can tailor the rules, permissions, and consensus mechanisms to fit your organisation’s specific needs, offering a level of control that public blockchains simply can’t match.


Private vs Public Blockchains: The Comparison

Feature  Private Blockchain  Public Blockchain 
Access  By invitation only (Permissioned)  Open to anyone (Permissionless) 
Ownership  Centralised authority  No single owner 
Centralisation Risk  Risk of single point of failure  Fully decentralised 
Transaction reversal  Can be reversed or deleted by owner  Immutable, cannot be changed 
Security  Potentially less secure due to fewer nodes  More secure due to decentralised nature 
Node incentive  No incentive for nodes  Miners rewarded for processing blocks 


Wrapping Up

As a business, it’s clear that understanding the nuances between public and private blockchains is more than just a technicality – it’s a business imperative. Whether you’re looking for a transparent, auditable platform or a secure, private network, your choice will have a lasting impact on your operations.

Remember, it’s not just about picking a blockchain; it’s about aligning it with your specific needs. Do you require a system that can handle a high volume of transactions without performance hiccups? Are you concerned about future scalability? These are questions that your due diligence will answer, guiding you to the blockchain that’s not just good but perfect for your business.

So, take the time to weigh the pros and cons, understand the features, and consider the long-term implications.


Frequently Asked Questions

Is Bitcoin a public or private blockchain?

Bitcoin operates on a public blockchain. It’s open to anyone and is maintained by a decentralised network of nodes.


Is private blockchain faster than public?

Generally, yes. Private blockchains often have fewer nodes to reach consensus, which can result in faster transaction times.


Is Ethereum a public or private blockchain?

Ethereum is primarily known as a public blockchain but can also be configured to run as a private or consortium blockchain.


Do private blockchains have cryptocurrency?

Not necessarily. While public blockchains often have a native cryptocurrency to incentivise nodes, private blockchains may not require such incentives.


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